Pharmacology Refresh Cards: Noradrenaline - Norepinephrine

Noradrenaline  -  norepinephrine
Drug name
Sympathomimetic   (Vasopressor)
Stimulates alpha-receptors in arterial and venous beds and beta1 receptors of heart, resulting in peripheral vasoconstriction and stimulation of heart rate and contractility. Coronary vasodilation occurs secondary to enhanced myocardial contractility.
Mechanism of action

Cont. infusion
0.01–0.4 µg/kg/min IV infusion via a central vein         
Septic shock ,with low SVR
Severe hypertension may occur if noradrenaline is given to patients taking tricyclic antidepressants since tricyclics block the uptake of noradrenaline into nerve endings.
Drug interaction
Myocardial ischaemia
peripheral ischaemia
Side effects

Hypovolaemic shock
Acute myocardial ischaemia or MI
Contraindication & precaution
Pregnancy: Category D
Special populations

Norepinephrine may lose potency in normal saline solution
Administer in D5W or 5% dextrose in saline
If extravasation occurs, infiltration with phentolamine
Administration notes
4mg/4ml amp
Availability in pharmacy

Other notes

Calcium Carbonate versus Calcium Acetate as Phosphate binder

Phosphate binder
Ph D: Neven Mohamed
For many years, calcium-containing phosphate binders (calcium acetate and calcium carbonate) were considered the best choice in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia, due to they are effective, possessed only moderate side-effects and suppressed parathormone levels with the intention of counteracting progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism. In two head-to-head observational studies (CARE, ARNOS), calcium-containing binders showed signals of clinical superiority versus the comparator sevelamer-HCl.[1.2] 

Nevertheless, calcium may be absorbed significantly, which may result in a positive calcium balance and actively contribute progressive cardiovascular and soft-tissue calcification in patients at risk.[3]

15 Facts about HARVONI the recent Hepatitis C from Gilead

HARVONI is a combination of ledipasvir (90mg), a (HCV) NS5A inhibitor, and sofosbuvir (400mg), an HCV nucleotide analog NS5B polymerase inhibitor. HARVONI was approved by FDA on 10 October 2014, as first Hepatitis C drug combination, that used alone without need to ribavirin or peginterferon alfa, as in case of SOVALDI.

Here are 15 facts about the new drug, that pharmacist needs to know to help him in dealing with the Hepatitis C newest treatment.

Facts about SOVALDI Therapy

SOVALDI is a nucleotide analog polymerase inhibitor, that use in patients with chronic hepatitis C, in combination with ribavirin or interferon plus ribavirin, and the cure rate in clinical trials reached 95%.

SOVALDI is a nucleotide analog polymerase inhibitor, that use in patients with chronic hepatitis C, in combination with ribavirin or interferon plus ribavirin, and the cure rate in clinical trials reached 95%
Here is some facts about SOVALDI that pharmacist must know:
1-Active constituent of SOVALDI is sofosbuvir 400 mg.
2-SOVALDI is effective against the four genotypes of HIV infection, including patients with HCC that in waiting list for liver transplantation, and those carrying HIV-1/HCV co-infection.
3-SOVALDI not recommended using alone for Chronic Hepatitis C patients.
4-The dose of SOVALDI is 400 mg once daily, to be taken regardless of food.
5-Genotype-1 HCV treated for 12 weeks with SOVALDI +Peginterferon alfa +ribavirin, and for 24 weeks if used without peginterferon alfa.

Natesto the first androgen nasal gel

It is cautiously calculable that almost thirteen million yankee men might have low androgen levels. Current treatment pointers concentrate on the restoration of the physiological androgen level through the utilization of exogenous androgen preparations, that embrace topical gels applied by the hands, hypodermic pellets,transcutaneous patches, contractor injections, oral tablets, moreover as a buccal patch.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Natesto (testosterone), once CompleoTRT™, the primary and solely androgen nasal gel for replacement medical aid in adult males for conditions related to a deficiency or absence of endogenous androgen. Natesto is self-administered via a nasal applier thereby minimizing the chance of secondary exposure to androgen of girls or youngsters.